Micronutrients are nutrients that are required for healthy metabolism to occur in the body to. Micronutrients literally means micro=small amounts (less than 100 milligrams/day) of nutrients. Micronutrients include vitamins and minerals.
Vitamins are organic molecules that are important for maintaining adequate health. There are 13 total vitamins that have been identified. These are broken into two categories Water-soluble and fat–soluble vitamins. They differ by the way they are absorbed and stored in the body. The water-soluble vitamins are: all the vitamin Bs (B1 or Thiamin, B2 or Riboflavin, B3 or Niacin, B5 or pantothenic acid, B6 or pyridoxine, B7 or biotin, B9 or folic acid, B12 or cobalamins), and vitamin C. Water soluble vitamins in general are not stored in the body and excreted with the urine out of the body within a few days at the most. Fat soluble vitamins include vitamins A, D, E, and K. Fat soluble vitamins are stored in the body for a longer periods that is why there is special concern of the amounts we should be consuming.
Minerals are inorganic molecules that are essential for our body. There are 14 minerals that are broken into two groups, Major minerals and Minor minerals, depending on the amounts of the minerals that are required by our body. Major minerals are minerals that we have to consume in amounts greater than 100 milligrams per day, and Minor minerals (or trace minerals) are those that your body needs less than 20 milligrams per day. Calcium is considered to be Major mineral because adults need to consume over 1,000 milligrams per day. Other major minerals are Sodium, Potassium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Sulfur. Iron is a trace mineral because it is required 8 or 18 mg/day depending on the sex and age. Other trace minerals are zinc, copper, selenium, chromium, iodine, manganese, and molybdenum.